I know that I’m supposed to light my animation figure before lighting up my green screen, but I am looking to get a clean chroma key in my VERY SMALL animation stage. Is it enough to just light my figure and just color key the green screen in AE?
You can do whatever gives you an even green colour, and lights your figure the way you want it. That doesn't look too bad, most of the screen is an even colour and the shadows don't look too black. The background looks like it is within the range that Keylight 1.2 in After Effects can handle.
But - The difficult part is the shiny chrome-look parts of the puppet which are reflecting a lot of green. Any range of green shades that will key out all of the background might also key out some of the puppet. I would try shooting one frame and doing a test key with it. If you get an ok key, great!
Since you have a green floor where the puppet stands, as well as background, I don't see any way to completely separate the puppet from the green. People who know After Effects better than me might be able to place a matte around the puppet outline, and tweak it every frame or so, to keep the key from affecting the green reflections on the puppet. There might be AE tutorials on Youtube which help. With my very limited AE skills I would probably have to adjust the range of green so I preserved all of the puppet, and do a lot of manual clean-up of parts of the green screen that didn't key.
But first, try a key and see how it looks.